This paper examines the recent German reform to increase primary school hours and its effect on maternal labor supply. I exploit the quasi-experimental nature of the reform to assess whether or not gaining access to a full day school increases the likelihood that mothers enter into the labor market or extend their hours worked if already employed. I use the German Socio-Economic Panel data set (GSOEP) and link it to a self-collected school-level data set with geographical information software (GIS). Using a flexible difference-in-difference approach in the estimation of linear probability and logit models, I find that the policy has a statistically significant effect of approximately five percentage points at the extensive margin, drawing more women into the labor market. I find no significant effect of the policy at the intensive margin; women who were already working do not extend their hours worked. This is one of the few papers to look at the relationship between primary school and maternal labor supply at the level of treatment.
“Non-cognitive peer effects in secondary education”
Work in the peer effects literature has established that peers impact each other in the classroom through academic achievement and cognitive ability, but has not explored many alternative channels. This paper examines how the non-cognitive traits of peers in the classroom impact an individual’s learning outcomes. I estimate a linear-in-means model and several non-linear models of peer effects with additional terms accounting for “Big Five” personality traits. Controlling for selection into schools, cognitive and non-cognitive ability, and family background, I find a significant association between average peer conscientiousness and individual academic performance of the order of a 0.19 standard deviation increase in math scores and a 0.17 standard deviation increase in language scores. In the case of language, I find that greater variance of peer conscientiousness in a classroom is negatively related to individual test scores. I also find that having more extroverted peers in a classroom is negatively associated with individual math performance. This is some of the first evidence relating non-cognitive traits to peer effects and lends support for programs in schools targeting the development of non-cognitive skills.
Gregg, P., Jerrim, J., Macmillan, L., & Shure, N. (2017). Children in jobless households across Europe: Evidence on the association with medium- and long-term outcomes. Department of Quantitative Social Science Working Paper, 17-05.
Jerrim, J., Lopez-Agudo, L. A., Marcenaro-Gutierrez, O.D., & Shure, N. (2017). What Happens When Econometrics and Psychometrics Collide? An Example Using PISA Data. Department of Quantitative Social Science Working Paper, 17-04.
Parker, P. D., Marsh, H. W., Guo, J., Anders, J., Shure, N. & Dicke, T. (accepted 2017). An Information Distortion Model of Social Class Differences in Math Self-concept, Intrinsic Value and Utility Value. Journal of Educational Psychology.